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Life and Health: Meningitis

Dr. Richard Hale from Mount Nittany Physicians Group shares detailed information about different types of Meningitis.

With the recent meningitis outbreak at universities in New Jersey, it’s important to take a minute to learn about what meningitis is, what causes it, and how to treat it. Dr. Richard Hale, internal medicine physician from Mount Nittany Physician Group.  He answered the following questions about Meningitis.

1. What is meningitis?

Dr. Hale: Meningitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the membranes—called meninges—surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This swelling typically occurs because of an infection of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

Key signs associated with most cases of meningitis include headache, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, mental status change and a stiff neck.


2. Are there different types of meningitis?

Yes, there are actually five types of meningitis.

Viral meningitis: This is the most common type of meningitis in the U.S. Viral meningitis is caused by viruses such as the herpes simplex virus. It is contagious from person-to-person through fecal contamination such as when changing a diaper or not properly washing hands after using the restroom. Rarely fatal in healthy individuals, viral meningitis typically clears up on its own, but it’s important to see a healthcare provider right away to confirm the virus. 

Bacterial meningitis: This severe type of meningitis is caused by bacteria. Because it can be life threatening, contagious and rapidly progressive, immediate medical attention is essential. Spreading through respiratory secretions such as kissing, bacterial meningitis is typically treated with antibiotics, which helps prevent spreading the infection to others. 

Parasitic meningitis: This type of meningitis is very rare, and is caused by parasites in food, soil, and water. It is more common in under-developed countries, although there have been cases of parasitic meningitis in the U.S. from swimming in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers.

Fungal meningitis: This type of meningitis is also rare, and is caused by fungi. Not contagious, fungal meningitis is usually acquired by inhaling fungal spores in the environment. Those with HIV, cancer, or diabetes can be at higher risk due to a weakened immune system. Treatment includes long courses of high-dose antifungal medications.

Non-infectious meningitis: Also not contagious, non-infectious meningitis can be caused by complications from another illness, certain drugs, head injuries or brain surgery. Treatment varies depending on the cause of the non-infectious meningitis. 

3. Can any type of meningitis be prevented?

In terms of prevention, vaccines are available to help prevent most types of bacterial meningitis. To help prevent viral and bacterial meningitis, proper hand washing is also very important.

For teens entering college and living in a dormitory setting, or for kids going to overnight camp, a bacterial meningitis vaccination should be recommended.

It’s also important for prevention that you maintain a healthy immune system by exercising regularly; eating a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit, vegetables and whole grains; getting enough sleep; and avoiding cigarettes, illicit drugs and alcohol.

4. What should someone do if they believe they or a family member have meningitis?

If you believe you may have meningitis or if you have been in close contact with someone who has meningitis, it’s best to speak with your family physician right away. That way, any type of required treatment can begin and we can get you back to living a healthy life.

Don’t forget that meningitis can be a serious, life-threatening infection, so call your family physician if you have any questions or concerns.

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